Last in the first category, the committee found convincing evidence of a causal relationship between injection of a vaccine and two types of adverse events – syncope or fainting and deltoid bursitis or frozen shoulder.
Some vaccines were placed in the third category, in which the evidence was strong and generally suggestive that a causal relationship exists, but is "not firm enough to be described as convincing," the report said.
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These vaccines and side effects include human papillomavirus vaccine and anaphylaxis, MMR and transient arthralgia or temporary joint pain in female adults and in children, and certain trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines used in Canada in recent years and a mild, temporary oculorespiratory syndrome characterized by conjunctivitis, facial swelling, coughing and wheezing.
The committee put 135 other vaccine and adverse event pairs into the fourth category, in which the evidence was "inadequate to accept or reject a causal relationship. Those included extremely rare conditions that were hard to study,
This is the IOM's third report on the topic of vaccines and human side-effects, but the first since 1994. It was requested by the Health Resources and Services Administration to help determine justification for claims filed with the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, which determines financial payments to people who were injured by vaccines. Eight of the 12 covered vaccines were requested for review.
The committee members said they were not asked to describe the frequency with which these rare events occur and did not do so in response to questions.