The report's executive summary estimates that an even greater number, 6.3 million medical injuries, occurred in the U.S. in 2008. Of those, 1.5 million were associated with a medical error.
The authors evaluated each medical injury and estimated the likelihood that such an injury was caused by a medical error rather than the result of medical treatment.
"We measured the total cost per error as approximately $13,000, resulting in a total cost to the United States economy of $19.5 billion," the authors wrote.
"Additionally, these errors resulted in over 2,500 excess deaths and over 10 million excess days missed from work due to short-term disability."
The report also detailed that claims from inpatient billings revealed that 7% of admissions resulted in some type of medical injury.
The authors called on the insurance industry, which it said had previously had "low visibility" in its involvement with quality improvement initiatives, "to assume an active role by helping healthcare systems implement an actuarial approach, which can more systematically identify potential causes of medical errors than alternative approaches."
The report listed the 10 most expensive types of errors in 2008, the number of errors, the cost per error, and the total cost. The first five make up 55% of the total error costs.
The list is as follows:
The report also lists the most frequent medical errors.